What to expect
Early programs were hard-coded with wires and switches, or programmed in binary.
The development of programming languages is the story of this chapter, including Grace Hopper’s “FLOW-MATIC” and “COBOL”, structured programming and the “GOTO heresy”, object-oriented code and a look at functional languages.
A quick preview of the chapter follows, this is my explanation of the different programming paradigms.
In the imperative paradigm, we write commands for the computer to perform, like imperative mood in English, where “come here” gives an instruction.
The focus is on control flow and programs consist of sequence, selection and iteration.
References from this chapter…
 TX-0 instruction set is here http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/mit/tx-0/MIT_TX-0_InstructionSet.txt
 Dijkstra, CACM, March 1968.
 Knuth, “Structured programming with go to statements” 1979.
 Compilation stages on Isaac Computer Science
 See Isaac Computer Science for a tutorial on OOP.
 Haskell in Industry at the Haskell wiki: http://wiki.haskell.org/Haskell_in_industry
 “Why use Haskell” at the Haskell wiki: https://wiki.haskell.org/Introduction
 Paul Dubois quote from here https://morioh.com/p/11a20d9f2d0b
 App Lab at code.org https://code.org/educate/applab